This monograph presented recent years cutting-edge research papers on applied mathematics and its related fields, such as computer science, physics, chemitry and so forth. Optimal control theory had been applied to neural networks, quantum systems (e.g. Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger equation, Klein-Gordon-Maxwell equation, meason exchange effect,n uclear reaction,etc) as well as inverse problems. Especailly, the corresponding computational approach is adequately executed together with resultant theoretical conclusions for interpreting each other. The inherent connection with realistic issues would become a promising direction in future insight. It would be quite interesting to develop the interdisciplinary research to a wide class areas.