With the enormous volume of research that finds its place in literature every year, it becomes very difficult to select the meaningful and to present it in a comprehensive manner which required constant examination of the data. In the present manual all the experiments have been written in the light of recent knowledge. Much emphasis has been given on the the drawings pertaining to their clarity. All the specimens and slides have been kept together and related experiments has also been grouped together. This self contained text offers indepth discussion on the theoretical and practical aspects of laboratory experimentation. Some of the salient features of this manual are that every efforts has been made to make the description point wise and very minute details of each experiment have been thoroughly explained at proper places. Authors are thankful to the teacher fellows and students for sending their opinions, suggestions and criticism. We sincerely hope that the present manual will be more helpful for the students in their practical classes. Students comments for further improvement of the manual are always welcome.