Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have shown considerable promise in promoting wound healing by their ability to induce periodontal regeneration. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have emerged as attractive factors for promoting regeneration of periodontal tissues. Many of the BMPs, which belong to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-? superfamily, are found in high concentration in mineralized tissue. These molecules, alone as well in combination, exhibit complex effects on cell behaviours, including cells that regulate tooth morphogenesis at different stages of development. Of particular interest are BMP-2 and BMP-7 as they have generated much interest in periodontal research. Therefore, the aim of this review is to analyze the current research studies pertaining to the effects of BMPs on reconstruction of maxillofacial defects and regeneration of periodontal and implant associated defects. It also covers classification, structure, biological activity and basic consideration of BMPs for clinical use.