Globally about 740 million people are affected by goiter and more than two billion (or over 38% of the population living in 130 countries) are estimated to be at risk of Iodine deficiency disorder. Total goiter prevalence (weighted) in Ethiopia was 35.8%, an indication of severe iodine deficiency. This book therefore provides an assessment of the prevalence of Goiter in Wolaita and Dawro zones, Ethiopia. A descriptive, cross-sectional study involving quantitative method was conducted in high school and preparatory students in Wolaita and Dawuro zones. Quantitative data were collected from 718 randomly selected students using structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Based on the result, the overall prevalence (Total Goiter Rate) of goiter in study area was 351 (48.9%). Out of these female accounts 214(60.9%). Goiter stage of Grade-1, were 265 (36.9%) while goiter Grade-2 were 86(11.9%). In general goiter is a serious public health concern in the study zones. Therefore, emphasis on a sustainable iodine intervention program targeted at population particularly female is mandatory and also Nutrition education along with Universal Salt Iodization program is urgently required.