Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal death and morbidity. Preterm birth is multifactorial in origin, but infection has emerged as an important cause of preterm birth. It is logical to ask whether antibiotics can prevent prematurity. To assess the effectiveness of antibiotics an umbrella review was carried out. A historical review was carried out to assess the numbers and quality of RCTs. Probiotics may be a Novel treatment for preterm labour as assessed by a Cochrane review. Also a trial protocol was prepared to test whether probiotics are effective in preventing preterm labour and birth or not. Lastly, a study to investigate if cervical immunology and morphology would better refine high risk status for future clinical trials. Cervix was assessed immunologically using flow cytometry to quantify leukocytes subpopulation, morphologically by cervical length and volume as assessed by 3D ultrasound, and the cervical circulation by 3D power Doppler in patients at high risk of preterm labour. This book should be especially useful to Obstetricians, General Practitioners, young doctors, women in fertile age and researchers.