As agencies of disempowerment and deprivation, prisons epitomise the antithesis of healthy edifices. Being pioneers of prisons designed for punishment, deterrence, incapacitation & rehabilitation, trends in United States'' prisons, prisoners and prison health care both recapitulate and portend incarceration trends and adequacy of prison health care globally. The current “Mass Imprisonment” phenomenon in America mirrors the “Great Confinement” in 17th century Europe. Also, America''s current Prison-Industrial- Complex is reminiscent of Russia''s early 20th century Gulag Archipelago. Based on their extensive professional experience in clinical services delivery, policy development, research and public health programs'' implementation in prisons, the authors examine major historical features ofprisons, socio-cultural and demographic characteristics of prisoners, significant health conditions in prison settings, as well as policies and programs required for optimising correctional health care.