Revision with unchanged content. Achieving high scores on the English section of the Korean University Aptitude Examination (KUAE) is very important for Korean high school students because the scores can determine admission to Korean universities and students’ future social, political, and financial success in the society. To achieve desired English scores, the students spend tremendous time and energy studying the language. However, this test preparation does not seem to improve their English proficiency. Why do not students develop their English proficiency effectively with hard-working test preparation? To answer this question, this book analyzes the high-stakes testing system, English education, test, and examinees’ attitudes toward the test. The analysis focuses students’ opinions about the relationship between the KUAE English test preparation and their English proficiency development. This book also includes the procedure of how to design survey items and analyze them by using an Item Response Theory model. This study suggests some possible solutions for the Korean English education system. This book is addressed to professionals in ESL educators, researchers, and policy makers in Korea. It is also directed toward scholars in Korean studies.