Access to potable water is a fundamental need and human right. However, adequate and sustainable water supply in rural areas of developing countries is very low. Thus, scientific investigation of rural water supply problems is a critical area of contemporary research focus for community welfare and poverty alleviation. Therefore, this book will provide you a clear picture of the current rural water supply situation, coverage and the problems militating against the commendable efforts of the government, non-governmental organizations and the community(end users) to alleviate the problem. Second, it can serve as a policy guideline for rural water supply policies and strategies. Third, it calls to national and international GOs and NGOs to join their hands against the most important contemporary human challenge. Lastly, it indicates further research areas and calls for interested researchers.