Development of fermentation process for the production of a metabolite, enzyme or a therapeutic protein is seldom straight forward, involves several stages and empirical trails. In spite of great gains made in our understanding of microbial metabolism, physiology and molecular biology, improvement of product yield remains largely an empirical process. In this context, this book is intended to provide a case study which illustrates the development of fermentation process for the production of an industrially important enzyme “Tannase” from newly isolated bacteria. A detailed account of Isolation, screening and identification of bacteria, shake-flask trails, usage of statistical methods viz., Plackett-Burman design, Fractional factorial analysis, Response surface methodology for media optimization and process optimization in fermentor are given. A chapter is dedicated to the study of characteristics of this novel cell-associated tannase enzyme. This effort should shed some light on “cell-associated tannase”, should be especially useful for the beginners of fermentation technology, or anyone else who may be considering association with fermentation process development.