Each nation is interested in bringing up the growth rate with a view to solve economic problems and to raise the standard of living. This is possible only when there is increased production over a given period of time. This growth in production is possible when production factors are efficiently employed. Productivity has a big role to play in increasing production per unit of input. Economic growth of a nation is indicated not merely through absolute expansion in the nation’s output, but also through growth in productivity. Higher productivity ensure greater stability to the concern and help to take expansion projects in changing environment which demand more investment, offers wide-spread market and prosperity to the organisation. Thus, higher productivity is not only beneficial to the concern but also beneficial to the workers in the industry, consumers and finally to the nation. In this context, the book is an attempt to appraise the productivity performance of sugar industry in Maharashtra, India. Its conclusions and suggestions, however, will be equally applicable to the sugar industry of India as well as across the world.