Since PISA-tests have been carried out also the general public has become aware of the performance of education systems in international comparisons. My survey among Austrian and Finnish teachers indicated that teachers do not know very much about the preconditions and circumstances of their profession in other countries. This book deals with the up-to-date level of professionalism in education with a focus on vocational schools. For research and development in the field of professionalism a theoretical back-ground is required. This is provided by an introduction into the system theory, constructivism, organisational theory and systemic organisational theory. Austrian R&D in education as well as Finnish educational experts have developed their individual models of professionalism, which are described and opposed at the end of the theory part of this book. There has not been any cooperation between these two countries – and the comparison shows a surprising result!