The use of plants to treat diverse ailments is a practice that evolved with man and millions of people worldwide use herbal remedies and drugs discovered through study of traditional cures and folk knowledge. The patronage of botanicals is on the increase worldwide based on perceived efficacy and safety. In realization of the inherent value of herbal medicines to primary health care and the fact that over three quarters of the world’s population rely mainly on plants for health care, the WHO has advocated for proper identification, sensible exploitation, scientific development and appropriate utilization of herbal medicines. In essence, pharmacological and toxicological evaluations are considered essential to the development of standardized herbal remedies and the identification of lead compounds and/or new drugs for clinical use. Based on its use across West Africa in traditional medicine for the treatment of diverse ailments, this publication presents scientific findings on the pharmacological and toxicological actions of Byrsocarpus coccineus Schum. and Thonn. (Connaraceae). This book will be a useful guide for the design and conduct of a number of pharmacological experiments.