Sugarcane is not only major industrial crop but also one of the economic pillar crops in Myanmar agriculture. Due to increased demand for local consumption and export oriented nature, it should be increased not only plantation area but also yield per unit area and recovery percentage.In Myanmar,state sector productions are target driven and private sector productions are profit-oriented on free market economy. But sugarcane based small holding farms of private sector faced many challenges. Yield of sugarcane production and cane quality is low and production cost is high due to high transportation and input cost and loan interest. The small-scale private sector operates with very low efficiency in sugar recovery,higher losses and inferior in quality. Increases in sugar production are influenced by improvements in the production technology of existing sugarcane lands, mills and new sugar processing facilities.So, there is a need for technology improvement and technical efficiency measurement. This book provides economic analysis and effective ways to improve the profitability and technical efficiency of small holder sugarcane farmers at different farm size and plant nature.