The expression “science can be measured” refers, first of all, to the measuring of its results, achieved by means of scientific research (articles, patents, models, products, technologies, services etc.), and secondly, to the measuring of existing resources (funding, people, infrastructure - institutions, equipment/ facilities etc.). Science, which is carried out by highly qualified staff, can be measured with specific instruments. The role of scientometric evaluations, and scientometry in general, consequently becomes more and more important, with regard to both institutions and human resources. The chapters of the book will present methods, criteria and indicators for the evaluation of human resources, research entities, journals etc., as producers of knowledge, and thus science, with some examples from international practice. The actors in the two fields, education and scientific research, should be familiar with at least the fundamental concepts of scientometry, and the learning process should begin, in our opinion, during master studies. The book presents some basic principles which are absolutely necessary to those working in scientific research and/or in higher education.