This dissertation examines the impact of the Albanian legislation in the prosecution of human trafficking and related exploitation in the context of international legal instruments and policy documents. The purpose of this dissertation follows from the fact that the simple adoption of international treaties and mere criminalization of human trafficking are not sufficient to suppress and successfully prosecute this offense. To address the lack of specific and adequate legislation on trafficking at the national level a de jure/de facto analysis of the domestic legislation compliance vis-à-vis relevant international norms and human rights principles took place. While Albania has enacted anti-trafficking legislation modeled after the Trafficking Protocol, the number of prosecutions, as compared to the number of cases filed and the estimated scope of the problem, remains unsatisfactory. The dissertation draws upon an analytical inquiry of the domestic legislation, relevant case files, and interviews with prosecutors to conduct an examination of the obstacles that impede the prosecution of trafficking.