The Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce is an important tree for the Thar Desert with hard climatic adaptation, represents one of the lifeline in desert habitat. This is a species represents all five F viz., Forest, Fiber, Fuel, Fodder and Food. This tree is also mythological important in local communities. High value of this species recognised as a State symbol (state tree of Rajasthan). The book covers six chapters. Chapter 1 comprises the general introduction of the plant habitat and ecology. Chapter 2 is deal with plant systematic, morphology and identification. Chapter 3 is includes the value of plant with its historical account & economic importance, market trade. Chapter 4 comprises the detail study on the improvement of plant biomass on quantitative base by using various growth factors. Chapter 5 includes the improvement of plant biomass on quality base. Chapter 6 contains the information on the major threats & conservation mitigation for P. cineraria. This book will be a precious addition to the literature on the P. cineraria and help for the people committed for the conservation of this species and reforesting by using this species in the arid and semiarid region of Rajasthan.