This remarkably rich and easy-to-read book explores realities of the protection of heterodox Islamic minorities in Indonesia. This study is important as it gives a pluralist-legal perspective of the protection of heterodox religions. It opens readers eyes that the spectrum of Indonesian legal system which principally recognizes civil law brings about religious freedom for vulnerable groups is at stake because it also opens to Islamic and Indonesian customary laws. The protection of religious freedom in the constitution is challenged by legal practices from Islamic organisations as well as the majority Muslims which still rely on Islamic law and local traditions. As a consequence, the contention of these three legal dimensions in dealing with the effort to protect religious minorities has occurred in Indonesia over years. This book however offers that protecting heterodox religious minorities in Indonesia cannot solely depend on written legal documents but it should also consider legal practices within a given society.