In course of evolutionary time, the introduction of lead into man's environment has been of a very short and recent period. The amount of lead in human environment has increased considerably during the last century. Thus, lead is in air, water, food, rivers, lakes, oceans, dust and soil. Therefore, all individuals have a body burden of lead, whether they are exposed in urban, rural or occupational environment. The chronic toxicological effects of lead may cause kidney, liver, haematological, neurological and cognitive impairments. The treatment of lead poisoning especially at sub-clinical level is equally important. Use of chelating agents has been successful for short term of high exposure to lead. Besides, these agents can remove essential elements, resulting in kidney damage. Recently, the role of vitamins in preventing lead toxicity in animals is gaining wide attention. The body contains an elaborate antioxidant defense system that depends on dietary intake of antioxidants, vitamins and minerals. The novel role of antioxidants has opened new areas of research in several disease status and their therapeutic strategies.