Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) is a serious worldwide problem especially in developing countries. More than a third of children in the developing world remain constrained in their physical growth and cognitive development because of under nutrition. Malaria threatens one third of the world population and occurs in 91 countries. It is another major health problem globally, in Africa and is of Public health concern in Kenya especially the Western region around Lake Victoria. This book focuses on the relationship between PEM and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children in Western Kenya. It looks at the prevalence, severity, risk factors and predictors of PEM. It also looks at the role of Tocopherol, Cholesterol, Cytokines and other biochemical factors as potential diagnostic markers in PEM and P. falciparum malaria.