If you knew what Africa was some centuries ago, it would be surprising that the continent is now plagued with abject poverty and diseases due to broad-spectrum insanitation. If the continent was vibrant centuries ago, then any hypothesis that its predicament was due to African in-ingenuity is unfounded. Could the problem be attributed to the peoples’ mentality therefore? “Yes” and “No.” Yes, if mentality here means the state-of-mind of the people, and, No if mentality here means the peoples’ way of thinking. Author Agha presents in this book, an historical account for the broad-spectrum insanitation conundrum using the case of ex-Southern Cameroons. To the average public health policy maker, much of the book will be very rewarding if mastered. For the historian it states why Africa has remained a perennial insanitary human habitat. The book is intended to educate but also for the readers’ application of its recommendation.