Air pollution from ambient (traffic and industrial emissions in cities) and indoor (traditional biomass use as fuel) sources is a major health problem in developing countries like India. The linkage between air pollution and adverse health outcomes is less than conclusive. The biological mechanisms through which air pollutants affect health are not fully understood. There have been epidemiologic research on air pollution, but they are restricted mostly to the developed countries with pollution levels, exposure patterns and population characteristics very different from the developing nations. Clearly, there is need to strengthen both the quantity and quality of evidence linking air pollution and various health outcomes in India. In order to provide policy makers with state-of-the-art knowledge on effects of air pollution on human health, it was considered necessary to undertake the present study that showed that young women are at high risk of deteriorating health conditions due to air pollution exposure. From the social and public health standpoints, the findings can be treated as a wakeup call. It warrants concerted efforts to design and implement pollution abatement strategies.