Among the various industries, pulp and paper industry is one of the most notorious polluters of the environment. It has been categorized as one of the 17 most polluting industries in India due to discharge of huge volumes of highly coloured and toxic wastewater (effluent) in the environment. It causes pollution of land (soil), air and water. Heavy metals like mercury, cadmium and lead are present in pulp and paper mill effluent. These toxic elements may cause physical problem to human beings and animals by entering the food chains. The wastewater generated in a pulp and paper mill should be treated effectively so that it could be utilized for irrigation purpose without any harmful effects on environment, human and livestock health. This volume attempts to portray the studies carried out on the physicochemical characteristics of a stream carrying effluent load from a pulp and paper mill and on accumulation of heavy metals in the grains and straw of wheat crop irrigated with the wastewater. The volume hopefully would contribute to create awareness in this regard and be helpful in taking up appropriate measures to control and mitigate pollution being created by the polluting industry.