The author proposes reconsidering some of the fundamental issues of the Quaternary period. Based on own many-year long research carried out on the Baltic Shield, the author proves the fault-tectonic origin of such forms of the “glacial exaration” relief as roches moutonnes, fjords, etc. Referred by many to glacial accumulation, these land forms have actually emerged due to fault-folding processes. As has been shown by deep drilling of glaciers in the Antarctic and Greenland, the continental ice does not contain any boulders, but only trace amounts of dust-like substance. Since the lower strata are not involved in the general movement of glaciers, they conserve the glacier beds. In order to reveal the mechanism of boulder deposits formation, one should consider the actual geological processes, fault tectonic ones in the first place. The book is intended for geologists, geomorphologists, geographers, as well as general readers.