This text is necessary because of the considerable importance of understanding dairy husbandry practices, milk marketing systems and physicochemical properties and microbiological quality of milk under smallholder dairy production condition of Ethiopia. I have provided many references that will serve to provide easy entry into the literature. In general these have been chosen on the basis of wide coverage of the field, such as review articles, rather than first reports. I wish to thank many fellows who provided comments or information during the preparation of this paper, especially Dr Jurgen Greiling, Dr Mekonnen Hailemariam, Abebe Tessema, Dr Azage Tegegne, and Dr Kelay Belihu. If any readers wish to offer suggestions for correction or other improvement to this text, I would appreciate receiving them by e-mail to [email protected] Finally, I wish to express my deepest thanks to my mother Banchalem Tadesse for the great love, care and dedication she was able to bring my career this level.