Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a threat to the wellbeing of the unborn child. Whilst there is evidence of the benefits of screening and alcohol brief interventions (ABIs) in reducing hazardous and harmful drinking among primary care populations, evidence of their effectiveness with antenatal care populations is limited. In an effort to protect the health and safety of the unborn child, the Scottish Government recently implemented screening and ABIs in antenatal care settings. This book examines concepts important for understanding and improving effectiveness of screening and ABIs in practice in these settings. It also offers detailed and applied use of the realistic evaluation approach. The book is an important addition to a sensitive prenatal alcohol exposure subject area which is of immense relevance to policy, health professionals and public health researchers.