Materials science is an interdisciplinary research field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. This scientific field investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic properties. It incorporates elements of applied physics and chemistry. With significant media attention focused on nanoscience and nanotechnology in recent years, materials science has been propelled to the forefront at many universities. This book desribes the recent advancement of material science research along with the introduction of new and novel materials like boron-doped diamond and graphene.