It is well known that from 7 to 8% of eggs are broken before they reach the consumer in case of mechanical handling compared with 1.5 to 2% if eggs were handled by hand. Increase egg shell strength, economic losses have been estimated from time to time and are extremely important in determining the profitability of egg production and marketing. As known, the commercial layers produce high egg production but the eggshell strength was less compared with local breed. Also, many researches were conducted to evaluate the laying performance of all Egyptian local breeds, but a few data were published on the relationship between ultrastructural and organic matrix composition of eggshell effect of eggshell quality. So that, this experiment was carried out on the most important Egyptian native breeds to discover and investigate the reasons which attributed to the high shell strength by study relationship between ultrastructural and organic matrix composition of eggshell.