Nursing is the oldest activity focused on protection, support and preservation of health and care for ill people. It is one of the youngest scientific disciplines about which is not much written. This book will try to outline briefly the historical periods of nursing activities including nursing education in such a small prevailingly mountainous country with 5.4 million inhabitants as Slovakia is. It will be useful not only for Slovak nursing professionals, but also for other countries to get informed that Slovakia has also contributed to the history of nursing care. In history of this country, situated in the middle of Europe, many important social and political changes took place. These changes had always great influence on the development of healthcare, as well as nursing care and education.