Research finds that mathematics is the subject most often requiring remediation and that it is the most difficult to remediate successfully. Nationally, online enrollment is increasing at a tempo far outpacing traditional enrollment and is expected to continue growing rapidly for some time. Studies find that retention rates are lower in online courses than in traditional learning environments. Assessing learning, some scholars have reported better performance in traditional classrooms, whereas others have found no significant difference in performance between learners online and those in the classroom. This applied dissertation utilized a quantitative casual-comparative approach to compare grades, retention, and exit-test scores between traditional and online remedial arithmetic and prealgebra students grouped by combinations of learning format, ethnicity, age, and gender at a large southeastern community college. A minority of pairwise-comparison analyses discovered variances between groups.