The national legislation on national minorities is strongly influenced by the international legal framework. This research work examines the concept of effective participation, forms of political participation of national minorities and common national mechanisms for stimulation of minority inclusion in the political process, practiced the by European states. Further, it introduces national minorities of Ukraine and analyzes their legal protection and legal possibilities for political participation. A detailed study presents the development of electoral rules in Ukraine, political mobilization of national minorities of Ukraine, their political participation as subjects of electoral process, and their representation in the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine in 1990 - 2007. The research focuses on ethnic political parties in Ukraine and their electoral activity, party affiliations of minority people's deputies in the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, ethnic background of Ukrainian legislators in 1990-2007, their law-making activity and distribution between the Parliamentary Committees in the 5th parliamentary term, 2006-2007.