This monograph/book focused on the examination and characterisation of Pinus roxburghii ECM present in the root samples, and the use of the imported soil and seed to conduct a bioassay pot experiment in the glasshouse compared to two other species. The inherent differences between the species with hyperplasic growth of P. roxburghii seedlings (greatest dry weight) and hypertrophic growth of P. radiate (taller) are suggested for the identification and manipulation of the genes involved in these growth characteristics. By using this beneficial ectomycorrhizal technology, we will not only be able to germinate and grow pines seedlings, but can establish them successfully at desired places. It covers all the aspects regarding the isolation, culture, inoculation, manipulation and characterization of ECM fungi. I hope that readers of this monograph will find it a useful addition to and informative regarding the standard methods of ECM research and their potential application reafforestation programmes by inoculating other exotic and indigenous tree species with appropriate ECM fungi.