The study concerns the interface of resource based conflicts and their impact on pastoral livelihood with reference to the Basongora pastoral community who have been at the centre of land conflicts as they claim ancestral rights to ownership of Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP)and other neighboring pasturelands. This conflict has not only affected human race but also the environmental race. The study specifically established resources and how they have precipitated conflicts; the effects of the conflict; challenges involved in resolving this conflict and livelihood strategies and resolution mechanisms adopted. The findings revealed that,resource based conflicts have negatively impacted on pastoral livelihood and conservation as well. QINP conservation policies have not considered effective coexistence between the park and the pastoral community. The Government of Uganda could use this work to create a ground of building trust as an approach to reconcile conflicting parties. Policy makers and practitioners will be aided by this book to generate appropriate policies and guidelines towards addressing resource based conflicts in developing countries and the world at large.