Is an abundance of natural resources a ‘blessing’ or a ‘curse’? Should natural resources be held accountable for the poor development outcome of some states? There have been different contesting frameworks and evidences pointing to either one of the questions above. This book examines these different concepts, and contributes to the resource curse debate by analysing how some resource rich countries attained development successfully with the aid of their natural resources while some did not. A case study approach is employed with main focus on Nigeria because of its strategic position as the largest exporter of crude oil in Africa. Nigeria is critically analysed using Kaufmann et al’s governance indicators. The analysis would help shed light on the governance structures needed to boost development and economic growth in both resource rich and resource poor developing states. This book will be especially useful to professionals in oil and gas sectors, international development fields, students of international relations, development studies and other scholars.