The social and political transition that came with the fall of apartheid in South Africa had tremendous significance for the media. The media were actively engaged in the discussion of what role they should serve in the newfound democracy. This book is the result of a research project that scrutinzed more than 100 articles that appeared in the South African press in the post-apartheid years 1996-99. Two main discourses were identified: the watchdog discourse and the nation-building discourse. Those who propagated the watchdog discourse – mainly media representatives – favoured classic libertarian press ideals; while those who propagated the nation-building discourse – mainly government representatives – favoured social responsibility ideals. On the basis of the analysis, the research challenges the dichotomy between watchdog and nation-building discourses. The author discusses how the philosophy of communitarianism might serve as a model to maintain the interests of both the media and national development in an emerging media context. In this perspective, the book is of interest to anyone studying the role of the media in transitional societies.