The Chinese construction industry plays a vital role in the nation''s economic growth and state owned enterprises (SOEs) play an important role in this industry. These enterprises are currently faced with a shortage of key management and technical staff. This book is based on research that explores the relationship between the retention of key staff and a range of motivation factors. It also explores the unique Chinese cultural factors that impact work and motivation. Results of an extensive survey indicate that the two most important motivation factors are fair treatment and opportunities for learning and development. Some motivation factors appear to be particularly important in the retention of employees in lower-level positions and with many years of work experience while a different set of motivation factors contribute to the retention of employees in higher-level positions and fewer years of work experience. These findings are important for ensuring that government-run construction enterprises are successful in tailoring retention strategies to different types of employees and contribute to knowledge on retention in the Chinese cultural context.