Agricultural ecosystem is an assembly of mutually interacting organisms and their environment in which biotic and non-biotic materials related to production of crops, forestry, fisheries, poultry and livestock are interchanged in a largely cyclical manner. An ecosystem has physical, chemical, and biological components along with energy sources and pathways of energy and materials interchange. An agricultural system functions with all its inputs and outputs such as fertiliser, irrigation, pesticides, grains, leaves, stems, roots etc. Agricultural ecosystem is greatly influenced by the natural, climatic and man-made factors. Day length, sunshine hours, intensity of solar radiation, cloud cover, temperature, wind and precipitations have significant role on plant physiology and their vegetative and reproductive growth. Land and soil conditions such as land type, soil texture, soil moisture, soil pH, soil fertility regulate physiological as well as growth process of the plant. Agricultural ecosystems are very complex in nature and are threatened by climate change due to changes in the natural systems and human activities.