The rhizosphere soil microbial density, diversity and fertility status of the bamboo was assessed in order to find out the impact of bamboo on soil microbes, the microbial diversity and fertility status. In general, the density of microflora varied widely among locations as well as between bamboo rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. The density of bacteria and actinomycetes and fungal populations were found to be varied significantly between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil. Among the bamboo rhizosphere, greater number of microbial population as well as diversity was evidenced. Comparing rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, non-rhizosphere were microbialy more diverse. Among natural and managed ecosystem, natural ecosystems had more number of bacteria and actinomycetes, while managed ecosystem recorded greater number of fungi. The beneficial microbes viz., Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Beijerinckia and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms capable of solubilising dicalcium phosphate was isolated and cultures were screened and developed as carrier based inoculants and its application augmented bamboo seedlings growth in the nursery.