As in the past decades the trend of ever growing demand for food remains to be the major challenges to world agriculture. The farmers to give up their traditional practices and local crops as well as limited adoption of new technologies had hampered the agricultural transformation in Africa including Ethiopia. As a result of slow adoption of new technologies and inputs of production, productivity of crops has been low for many decades. which in turn made citizens dependent on aid for many years. Therefore, promotion of rice in the country and assessment and expansion of improved package with appropriate extension method is required to alleviate food shortage problem of the area and to exploit the currently uncultivated flooded and swampy plains. This book therefore provides for policymakers, extension educators, technical assistants, agricultural researchers, NGOs and other development agents involved in agricultural development to know the contribution of rice for the efficient allocation of the country major resources for research, extension and development programs and to utilize swampy and flood prone potential areas of the country to alleviate food insecurity.