In Nigeria and many African countries, the demand for rice is increasing and greater production is needed to feed the growing population and reduce costly imports. Since, the domesticated grass provides more than half the daily food for one of every three persons living on the earth today,hence the continuous search by experts and researchers for the best production alternatives vis-à-vis rainfed (upland/lowland),irrigated, swamp rice production, etc. A study of the rainfed upland rice production among peasant farmers in Gbonyin Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria was conducted. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, budgetary technique as well as regression analysis. The results so obtained in the study indicated that rainfed upland rice farming is profitable and promising. Useful suggestions and recommendations are made in the book on how agribusinessmen,researchers,farmers and government can boost rice production in order to alleviate poverty and food insecurity in the tropics, especially the Sub-Saharan Africa.