Globally, End Stage Renal Failure is one of the serious kidney diseases that affect the body system. It is a major health burden because not only it is progressive, irreversible, but also the patients are increasing dramatically in the past few decades. This is first book in helps filling a gap in the research literature for End Stage Renal Failure risk factors to provide recommendations for future interventions. The Book based on retrospective, hospital base a case control study to identify risk factors of End Stage Renal Failure among Palestinian population. The most common risk factors were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, kidney stones, glomerulonephritis, obesity, low activity level, anxiety, smoking, analgesic drug, low income, and family history of chronic diseases. The findings showed most if not all of the identified risk factors could be preventable. These results may highlight the issue as a public in nature that need community-based intervention programs integrated with health promotion programs.