An essential book for engineers developing mechatronic systems for robotic surgery. New perspectives on robotic assisted orthopedic surgery are introduced. Recent advances in medical imaging technology have made real-time calibration of robot based on machine vision practical to be used in an orthopedic surgical operation. This book provides basic concept for using visual sensory information on the real-time robotic control and in-process calibration for accurate model of robot link parameters. In distal locking procedure,it is difficult to determine manually the hole’s position of intramedullary rod before drilling and screwing to the bone. This book, therefore, explains new approach to determine the hole position and orientation using machine vision. This will significantly reduce surgery time, error and x-ray exposure to patient. Drilling bones will introduce nonlinear profile of thrust forces and torques. Uncontrolled drilling profiles may cause unnecessary surgical invasion. New technique for measuring in–process triaxial forces and torques for compensating the trajectory planning errors during the drilling operation is addressed.