The roles of natural and human factors in the arid lands have long been a matter of concern to many researchers. This study tries to find out the causes of degradation of natural environments in the central, eastern, and northern parts of Saudi Arabia. The decrease in rainfall leads to increasing aridity and, thus paves the way for greater deterioration of the environment as the carrying capacity of the arid lands decreases. This study determines that human activities have had adverse effects on the arid lands of Saudi Arabia. Causes of degradation of environment in the study area include: 1) drought; 2) agricultural malpractice and soil degradation; 3) use of wood for fuel; 4) water wastage; 5) wind-blown sand; 6) pressure of locusts; 7) hunting; 8) societal instability; 9) oil rush and population pressure; 10) management of the environment; and 11) overgrazing of pastures. Two problems are presented. The first problem is concerned with pasture conditions in the study area. The second problem deals with the future of agriculture in Al-Qassim. An extensive, mechanized type of agriculture has been developed that is consuming a fossil ground water.