The Roma are one of the largest ethnic minority groups and, although they are scattered all over the world, there is a significant Roma population in the Eastern European country of Romania. In Romania, as in most other Eastern European countries, the Roma suffered discrimination, oppression and persecution. Life for the Roma was never easy; they had to deal with enslavement, persecution and discrimination during World War II and strong anti-Roma violent and oppressive regimes. This monograph traces the history of the Roma, from their origins in India to their flight across Western, Eastern and Central Europe. It also analyzes the impact of the European Union enlargement on the Roma. The fall of Communism and Romania’s accession to the European Union brought hope to the Roma minority. The European Union placed the issue of minority rights on its agenda and demanded social change and rights for minorities from all of the countries applying for membership. Unfortunately, the European Union failed to follow through on its requests and this resulted in little to no change for the Roma.