Energy is the prime mover of economic growth and is vital to the sustenance of a modern economy. Future economic growth crucially depends on the long-term availability of energy from sources that are affordable, accessible and environmentally friendly. India is the second most populous nation in the world and 70% of its population (over 650 million) is rural, and meeting its energy requirements in a sustainable manner continues to be a major challenge for the country. Traditional biomass resources still meet an overwhelming proportion of the rural energy demand. In this book, the energy use pattern in different sectors of rural India has been studied. Understanding the pattern allows us to introspect alternative sources of energy for the pertaining fuel. Getting acquainted with the impacts of such fuels on the society and environment will help us to identify the new policies which should be made for the sustainable use of energy.