The study was carried out to assess rural household food security status and its determinants in Laelaymychew Woreda Central Zone of Tigirai and was conducted in three rural kebeles selected through two-step random sampling. The required data was collected from 125 randomly selected rural households. Based on the survey data result, an effort was made to categorized the sample households in to food insecure and food secure groups whether there exists a mean difference between the two groups with respect to the different demographic and socio-economic aspects. Accordingly, the result of the study showed that 39(31.2%) and 86(68.8%) of sample households were found to be food secure and food insecure, respectively. In addition, the model results revealed that total cultivated land holding size, total livestock holding, total annual income per AE and use of chemical fertilizer were found positively related and statistically significant to food security status in the study area. Similarly, family size of the households was also found negatively related and statistically significant to food security status of the rural households.