In most of the developing countries employment in agriculture and modern formal sector is not increasing in proportion to the rise in output. There is presence of large scale unemployment, underemployment and disguised unemployment. The per capita availability of cultivable land is fast diminishing. These developments see creation of jobs in the rural non-farm sector as an alternative strategy for solution to problems of rural unemployment, underemployment and poverty. This book analyses the dynamics of the rural non-farm employment situation in two of the important Asian economies i.e. India and Thailand. It explains that in both the countries non-farm sector is heterogeneous across activities and agricultural growth is one of the important determinants of non-farm employment. However diversification of rural non-farm employment has been more pronounced in Thailand than in India. It suggests that Public policy to develop this sector should be activity and region specific.This book will of great interest and use to global developmental practitioners,economists, Asian scholars and policy administrators particularly those in the developing world.