This book focused on the nature and extent of persistent rural poverty in rural areas, and in particular to the ways in which rural residences may affect ones poverty status in Rwanda. The central theme of this study was to fully describe what rural poverty is, how rurality leads to extreme poverty and what it actually means to be poor especially when it comes to the eyes of the beholder; the poorest of the poor in the rural areas. It is these poorest of the poor who were the subject / unit of analysis in this study. Two villages in Rwanda’s Northern Province were selected as a case study. The study was mostly qualitative and much focus was put on a down to earth naturalistic inquiry about rurality and rural poverty as a whole. The study used participatory qualitative research methods which were supplemented with quantitative research methods. This study used methods like the questionnaire and focus group discussions to collect data from the rural poor. In data analysis, the study used descriptive statistics and also the researcher relied on established theories to process and concretely analyse the information. Generated theory was compared to existing theory.