While collective measures for the management of shared watercourses in the SADC region already exist, water quantity and quality remain major challenges for the region. About 70% of the SADC’s surface water is shared by two or more states. Five of the mainland SADC states mainly depend on water generated outside their borders. It is estimated that by 2050 some states in SADC will be without water. The interstate nature of watercourses and the rising water scarcity in the SADC region necessitate an investigation into whether the region’s existing Protocol on shared watercourses management provides a comprehensive solution, and lays a firm foundation, for sustainable shared watercourses management. This book argues that abstract laws and policies, particularly the current Protocol, will not assist the SADC region in fighting its water wars. It advocates a Protocol that sets out clear goals and timeframes for the effective management of shared watercourses in the SADC region. It further urges the SADC to direct efforts towards adopting a comprehensive Protocol that emphasises and promotes environmental protection, sustainable utilisation and management of its shared watercourses.