The wild relatives of crop plants have immense potential for improving agricultural production and maintaining ecosystem health. Thereby assist in combating climate change and ecosystem instability in addition to ensuring food security. The wild relatives of rice in particular possess certain desirable genes which, when transferred to cultivated species, enhance the agronomic characters of cultivars. Only a few of the many species at risk of extinction actually obtain legal protection. Many more species become extinct, or potentially will become extinct, without gaining recoginition. This book therefore provides insights on analyzing the genetic polymorphism and population genetic structure of wild rice species, shows mechanism to reveal the genetic potential of wild rice as an input for breeders to use it in rice improvement program and gives a base for conservationist and policy makers in designing and implementing conservation strategy to safeguard the ongoing loss of wild rice species.