This monograph contains unique study in the countries of former Yugoslavia (Serbia and Croatia), which examines the research on work issues of persons responsible for safety and health at work in business organizations in Serbia, as well as research into the comparative analysis of research on problems related to work of the independent occupational safety specialist in Croatia and Serbia. Questionnaire with 93 exam questions has been used as the research instrument. Regression analysis, chi-square test etc. are statistic methods used for the research processing and review. The results have shown that workers in both countries are aware that physical increase of hired occupational safety and health specialists is not the main cause for the improvement of their work and state of safety in companies. They are aware that for something like this, it is necessary to plan and conduct competence training, acquire knowledge related to management in this area and obtain larger technology support with the corresponding financial allowance for their work. The research results are useful for those who deal with this subject matter and its actuality can be beneficial to a wide range of readers.